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Are Northeast Ohio's ghost kitchens ghosts of their former selves?

stack of deserts in to-go containers on counter next to stack of cards.
Ygal Kaufman
Ideastream Public Media
To-go orders from their ghost kitchen out of a church were the only orders Balaton's was doing for over a year, before reopening a dine-in location this past Spring.

In 2020, with in-person dining restricted or closed in much of the country, ghost kitchens became lifelines for a struggling industry.

Ghost kitchens are restaurants that only serve carryout and delivery through some of the many online food delivery services like DoorDash or Uber Eats.

The term ghost kitchen refers to the idea of a restaurant with no front facing location. They’ve always existed here and there, but only during the pandemic, when sit-down dining was restricted or completely canceled in much of the country, did they spread across cities like wildfire.

Balaton, a Hungarian staple of the Cleveland dining landscape for over 60 years, is one of many restaurants that faced closure due to the pandemic. They stopped serving in-person diners at their Shaker Square restaurant and used the kitchen, as well as the facility at St. Elizabeth’s, a Hungarian Church nearby on Buckeye, to fill carryout orders in a ghost kitchen format. They stayed so true to the ghost kitchen model that they didn’t advertise or use any of the food delivery services. Those who knew were able to call and place orders for pick up on the weekends.

Owner George Ponti says the restaurant could have continued that model, but never considered it a long-term solution to its challenges.

We could ride that ghost kitchen for probably another two or three years, and then it's going to die out like every fad that dies and nobody will be interested,” said Ponti, firmly rejecting the notion of ghost kitchens as the future of dining.

father, wife and daughter pose behind counter at restaurant, smiling
Ygal Kaufman
Ideastream Public Media
The Ponti family has owned Balaton's for over 60 years and plans to continue as a family-run business.

Other restaurant owners who were pushed into the ghost kitchen model by the pandemic used it not only to continue working and providing jobs for their employees, but to incubate new ideas.

Doug Katz is well known in Cleveland’s restaurant scene. He’s the head chef at Zhug, a Middle Eastern restaurant, and Amba, which features his spin on Indian cuisine. He also has a catering company and up until the pandemic, ran the critically acclaimed restaurant Fire in Shaker Square. Like Ponti, the pandemic forced Katz to find new uses for his space and new ways to generate revenue.

We decided to launch takeout and delivery at Zhug. And the success of that delivery and that pickup really inspired us to work on two other restaurant concepts that we had wanted to launch as brick-and-mortar restaurants,” said Katz.

man with beard and glasses smiles
Ygal Kaufman
Ideastream Public Media
Doug Katz is the chef behind Zhug and Amba, two of Cleveland's acclaimed fine dining locations, and he used to run Fire before the pandemic forced its closure. He found success in both the ghost kitchen and brick-and-mortar scenes.

Using the ghost kitchen as an incubator for future brick-and-mortar restaurant plans is the best way forward for the market segment, according to John Barker, president and CEO of the Ohio Restaurant Association, an industry group in Columbus.

“You start off making some product, you know, in an incubator, and you learn and you work around the kitchen and all that,” said Barker. “That is actually, you know, thriving. We think that's a good idea."

Ghost kitchens also became an attractive entry point for those who wanted to get into the business, perhaps without the experience or backing required for a full restaurant setup.

You had to decide what your brand and food were going to be, put in a little equipment, but you could be up and running, you know, for $50,000 or less with a restaurant, which just caught a lot of people's fancy,” said Barker.

A 2021 report in the industry trade “Hospitality Technology” predicted that the ghost kitchen market would reach $71 billion annually and that as many as half of the large so-called “enterprise brands,” like McDonald’s, would launch ghost kitchen operations by 2027. The concept seemed poised to become the “new normal.”

But three years later, the ghost kitchen concept is more of a specter.

CloudKitchens bought up real estate nationwide and filled those spaces with kitchens to rent out to entrepreneurs. Its Cleveland location is the Carnegie Food Hub on Carnegie Avenue. It’s a cluster of ghost kitchens representing a variety of different ethnic and American food types. The location has seen pronounced turnover in its restaurants, which run the gamut from an outpost of the Ohio chain, Panini’s Bar & Grill, to a variety of smaller restaurants with no brick-and-mortar presence. 

A story from December in another industry trade, “Restaurant Business,” examined accusations that Cloudkitchens was misleading new entrants in the market. The common refrain from those with short-lived ghost kitchens at Carnegie Food Hub was that CloudKitchens had misled them about the level of business they would see.

Barker couldn’t speak to that, but said newcomers do face challenges. One of the biggest is the overwhelming number of options the consumer has and the fast pace of changes to the industry. When stacked against a fledgling restaurateur, ghost kitchen or not, they can be fierce obstacles.

“At the end of the day, like CloudKitchens, I think it comes down to the food and the brand has to be on. You know, they kind of have to be on trend. They have to be good because sooner or later people will not order because it looks cool,” said Barker.  “I think that what's happening right now is that the consumer expectations have gone up.”

But if you’re a newcomer hoping to open a restaurant that wins the day based on your unique flavors or your innovative approach, the ghost kitchen can be enticing , despite the shifting landscape.

“In terms of the trends that are affecting this, I think, you know, we're just seeing everything changing so much right now and everybody's trying to figure this out. You know, there is a place for these commercial kitchens,” said Barker, “because when people are coming in to an industry, they're in love, they just want to be somehow in the food service industry, and you can't really stop people when they get it in their head.”

The CloudKitchens website still features new posts from May of this year touting the rise of ghost kitchens and the death of dine-in establishments. But the posts only refer to data from the peak of the pandemic, and notably don’t share any of the more recent developments in the ghost kitchen market, such as Wendy’s cancelation of its massive ghost kitchen expansion through Reef Kitchens, or popular YouTuber Mr. Beast’s ghost kitchen chain, MrBeast Burger, which is now the subject of back-and-forth lawsuits between the celebrity and the company charged with making his burgers.

CloudKitchens, which is backed by Uber co-founder Travis Kalanick, experienced lawsuits and a loss of investors. The company declined to comment for this piece, as did every proprietor at the Carnegie Food Hub. Many of the restaurants listed on its website are owned by the same proprietors, cooking out of the same kitchens, giving the appearance of a more robust restaurant presence within. Several of the restaurants listed recently on the website were registered to the same food company, operating under different names, making widely different styles of food. They have all recently been removed from the website. 

I very much like doing a lot with the little. So I like the idea behind it. I like that it's a possibility,” said noted chef David Kocab.

Kocab is the head chef at the popular West Side Japanese restaurant, Bar Oni. Like Katz, he tested a new restaurant concept during the pandemic by carry-out and delivery only. And similar to some of the entrepreneurs interested in multiple styles, his ghost kitchen, Conforti, didn’t deal in the same Japanese fare as his brick-and-mortar. It offered Italian comfort food. He said the food hub model of the ghost kitchen is a bit different.

“It's a very fly-by-night situation,” said Kocab. “Obviously, I think especially in the Cleveland and the Northeast Ohio market, like a notable face, especially in restaurants, is beneficial.”

man in black with beard prepares food in a container in a kitchen
Ygal Kaufman
Ideastream Public Media
David Kocab preps food for a night of brisk business at his popular restaurant, Bar Oni. He previously ran the ghost kitchen, Conforti during the pandemic.

Owners might want to avoid calling attention to multiple, distinctly different, restaurant concepts under one umbrella because of concerns about authenticity. But Kocab said it can be done and done well, provided the underlying product backs up the hype. 

“There's no trickery going on. You know what I mean? As long as the food gets to them and it tastes good and it meets expectation about what they thought it was going to be … have ten brands, you know, if you can keep up with it. I think that's cool,” said Kocab.

John Barker of the Ohio Restaurant Association said it’s a tactic that some larger players in the industry have also used, particularly during the pandemic and particularly if their brand was less conducive to delivery.

“You know, you go on Uber Eats or DoorDash and you would see a brand that would say John's Tacos, right? You have no idea. But it looked pretty good. You ordered what was being made at an iHOP, you know what I mean? Or you know, a Chili's,” he said.

Barker still sees upsides to the idea of ghost kitchens, but he said it will likely take a more focused format than what CloudKitchens is pursuing. He noted businesses like Maker Kitchens in Los Angeles, which opened a ghost kitchen facility in Columbus this past January. It has a model similar to CloudKitchens, but focuses on customers with more experience in the industry. It has its sights set on opening a Cleveland location next. Maker Kitchens' website has a markedly different feel from that of CloudKitchens, and seems more directed to people with a foot already in the food service industry.

Meanwhile, Balaton is back open in its traditional form, now with a new location in Bainbridge. The grand opening this spring was packed. Anyone without a reservation was turned away. Owner George Ponti was glad to have the pandemic and the ghost kitchen business behind him, and pledged to never go that route again, if he can help it.

This is an institution. it cannot be closed. The Cleveland Opera, the Cleveland Ballet and the art museum cannot close, so Balaton restaurant can't be closed.”

man speaks to another man across restaurant counter
Ygal Kaufman
Ideastream Public Media
George Ponti, owner of Balaton's, speaks to a longtime customer before the rush starts on the day of their grand re-opening from the pandemic closure.

Ygal is a multiple media journalist who does work telling stories across all platforms and producing the radio and television programming seen on Ideastream Public Media.