Between Civil War and Civil Rights: American as Apple Pie—How Terrorism Lost

In 1941 Randolph, head of the all-black Pullman Porters union, boldly threatened a wartime March on Washington to force recognition of the intolerable conditions blacks faced nationwide. This pressured President Roosevelt to back fair employment practices. Later, President Truman ordered desegregation of the Army and the federal government due, in part, to Randolph's threats of mass civil disobedience during the Cold War. White resistance to blacks' rising aspirations threatened a replay of the bloody "Red Summer" of 1919, marked and marred by violence against blacks and leftist-liberals. Stetson Kennedy, journalist, investigator, gadfly and labor activist, courageously exposed the Ku Klux Klan and other such groups on their own turf. He recalls ridiculing the Klan by broadcasting Klan passwords on the Superman radio show and wearing Klan robes into the U.S. Capitol building to embarrass the Committee on Un-American Activities. American as Apple Pie highlights both the economic, sexual and social coercion which enforced and grew out of Jim Crow segregation, and the unorthodox, activist tactics which defeated it.

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